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How Speakers Work

Speakers might look complicated but they are actually really simple devices and in order to understand their working principle, you need just a basic understanding of electromagnetism and sound waves. Speakers transform electrical signals into sound waves and that’s the simplest definition of their purpose.

Parts of A Speaker
Every speaker has at least three parts – enclosure, driver (or drivers), and electronic components (crossovers, amplifiers).
Drivers – Speaker drivers are the most important parts of every speaker. The drivers are in charge of transforming electrical signals into sound. Enclosures and electronic components are important, too but their purpose is to improve the sound quality while the drivers actually create the sound. Speaker drivers are often called speakers which is not completely correct. Speaker is the term that defines the whole package (drivers + enclosure + electronic components). Speaker drivers are just one part of the speaker.

Enclosure/Housing/Cabinet – The box inside which all the drivers and other components are installed is called enclosure. Depending on the type and size of the enclosure, the sound will be different.

Electronic components (crossovers and amplifiers) – Many speakers have amplifiers. Their purpose is to amplify the electrical signal and improve the accuracy of the output signal. Some speakers (those with two, three, or multiple drivers) have crossovers which redirect signals of different frequencies to dedicated drivers (woofers, midrange woofers, tweeters).